40 Golf Inc. September/October 2017
think anybody has completely solved the
problem,” said John Colligan of Colligan Golf
But having a good liner — and good sand —
can help eliminate some of the more common
and time-consuming issues, including contamination and washouts. “It’s pay me now or pay
me later,” Straka said.
;en there’s the sand.
Golfers certainly care about sand and the
condition of the bunkers. Straka said it typically
is their second-highest area of concern a;er the
PERMAEDGE is a system of
building revetted bunkers with
repurposed synthetic turf. This
patented method delivers a natural
aesthetic and lasts for decades. It
has been installed at a variety of
high-profile courses and is used by
many architects as a new method
of bunker construction.
FLEXXCAPE from IVI-GOLF is
a new product in the bunker
hardscape market. Manufactured
from industrial PVC, Flexxcape,
an ultra-premium bunker liner,
is seamless, durable and easy to
condition of the greens.
Today, there are myriad sands on the market,
including some that can be customized to speci;c particle sizes, shapes and even colors, and
some that help prevent balls from plugging in
the bunkers. Additionally, there are manufactured sands, such as crushed silica gravel, which
are designed for speci;c types of environments
;ese products are shipped around the country, creating options beyond local sands. But
the prices are higher — as much as two or three
Durability has also improved.
“Back in the old days, bunkers were good
for ;ve years with no liner,” Colligan said.
“Nowadays, with these new materials, you can
depend on a bunker for 10 to 15 years.”
To determine what material is best, course
owners are advised to experiment. Some
courses, especially those at private clubs, will
line several bunkers, each with a di;erent mate-
rial, to ;nd out which is best for their property
and their players. When they identify the one
that works best, they’ll use it in the rest of the
Gone are the days of watering the fairways
for a predetermined amount of time, using a
few hundred sprinkler heads that threw water
everywhere. ;at could leave the greens saturated, with water running down slopes and
New irrigation systems give superintendents
better control over which areas get watered, how
much, when, and with what quality of water.
“Anything and everything is being done to
in;uence and improve those situations,” Straka
;at includes treating water to improve its
quality through processes such as reverse osmosis, bioremediation ponds and ;ltering.
Minimizing the amount of water being used
saves water and money. ;at’s something everyone can get behind.
Irrigation innovations also include the number and types of nozzles, dispersion patterns,
moisture sensors and adjustments for various
types of grasses.
Low-pressure delivery systems allow water to
reach speci;c areas without overwatering. ;at
likely means courses will have more irrigation
heads than they did previously. “Nowadays we
have courses with 1,400, 1,800, 2,000 heads,”
Irrigation systems also use improved pipes
these days. HDPE pipes are replacing PVC
pipes. ;ey are more ;exible, have a longer
life expectancy and are more environmentally
GREENSCAN3D uses 3D imaging
to create a virtual surface that is
used to analyze slopes and control
grades. It helps superintendents
control wet and dry spots, with
steeper areas in red and flatter
areas in green. The Digital Terrain
Model produced can also be
used for grade control when
rebuilding greens to their original
specifications or making minor
adjustments to greens.